The purpose of this paper is to propose scientific and technical directions to reach global data and power sobriety while preserving computational efficiency. We present nine opportunities to lower the power consumption of computing units. A growth factor of 100 to 1000 in energy efficiency is achievable in the next 10 years if we take full advantage of all the potential improvements, working simultaneously at all five levels of the technological ecosystem (process steps, circuits, architecture, software and algorithms).

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